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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway[2†]

Ernest Miller Hemingway, born on July 21, 1899, in Cicero (now in Oak Park), Illinois, U.S., and died on July 2, 1961, in Ketchum, Idaho, was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist[1†][2†]. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954[1†][2†]. Hemingway was noted both for the intense masculinity of his writing and for his adventurous and widely publicized life[1†]. His succinct and lucid prose style exerted a powerful influence on American and British fiction in the 20th century[1†].

Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s[1†][2†]. He published seven novels, six short-story collections, and two nonfiction works[1†][2†]. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature[1†][2†]. His economical and understated style, which included his iceberg theory, had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and public image brought him admiration from later generations[1†][2†].

Early Years and Education

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Cicero, now known as Oak Park, Illinois[1†][3†]. He was the first son of Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, a physician, and Grace Hall Hemingway[1†]. His childhood home, built for his maternal grandfather and namesake, stands today as a museum and visitors center cared for by the Ernest Hemingway Foundation of Oak Park[1†][3†].

Hemingway spent much of his early years in the upscale Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois[1†][3†]. However, the parts of his boyhood that mattered most to him were the summers spent with his family on Walloon Lake in upper Michigan[1†]. During these summer months, young Ernest was able to explore the land, hunting squirrels and other small game, as well as fishing the many streams that fed the lake[1†][3†]. These early experiences in close contact with nature instilled in him a lifelong passion for outdoor isolation and adventure[1†][4†].

Hemingway was educated in the public schools and began to write in high school, where he was active and outstanding[1†][5†]. He showed a particular talent for writing and wrote for both his high school’s newspaper, Trapeze, and for the yearbook, Tabula[1†][3†]. Within the Oak Park public school system, Hemingway saw his first writings published, sometimes using the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr[1†][3†].

On graduation from high school in 1917, impatient for a less-sheltered environment, Hemingway did not enter college but went to Kansas City, where he was employed as a reporter for the Star[1†]. His tenure at the newspaper was short, a scant six months, but it left an indelible impression on the young writer[1†][3†]. The paper’s style guide influenced him to adopt the short, declarative statements in his writing that later became a hallmark of his work[1†][3†].

Career Development and Achievements

Ernest Hemingway started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas City at the age of seventeen[6†]. After the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in the Italian army[6†]. Serving at the front, he was wounded, was decorated by the Italian Government, and spent considerable time in hospitals[6†].

After his return to the United States, he became a reporter for Canadian and American newspapers and was soon sent back to Europe to cover such events as the Greek Revolution[6†]. During the twenties, Hemingway became a member of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris, which he described in his first important work, The Sun Also Rises (1926)[6†]. Equally successful was A Farewell to Arms (1929), the study of an American ambulance officer’s disillusionment in the war and his role as a deserter[6†].

Hemingway used his experiences as a reporter during the civil war in Spain as the background for his most ambitious novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)[6†]. Among his later works, the most outstanding is the short novel, The Old Man and the Sea (1952), the story of an old fisherman’s journey, his long and lonely struggle with a fish and the sea, and his victory in defeat[6†].

Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s[6†][7†][8†]. He had published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works[6†][7†][8†]. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature[6†][7†][8†].

Hemingway – himself a great sportsman – liked to portray soldiers, hunters, bullfighters – tough, at times primitive people whose courage and honesty are set against the brutal ways of modern society, and who in this confrontation lose hope and faith[6†]. His straightforward prose, his spare dialogue, and his predilection for understatement are particularly effective in his short stories, some of which are collected in Men Without Women (1927) and The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories (1938)[6†].

Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954[6†][1†][6†][7†][8†][9†]. His succinct and lucid prose style exerted a powerful influence on American and British fiction in the 20th century[6†][1†][6†][9†].

First Publication of His Main Works

Ernest Hemingway’s literary career began with the publication of his first works, a collection titled “Three Stories and Ten Poems”, which was published privately in Paris in 1923[10†]. This initial experimentation impressed critics, with Edmund Wilson of the Dial stating that the 'prose is of the first distinction’[10†].

His first novel, “The Torrents of Spring”, was published three years later in 1926[10†][11†]. However, it was the publication of “The Sun Also Rises” in the same year that marked a significant milestone in Hemingway’s career[10†][8†][12†]. This novel provided an insightful portrayal of American expatriate life in Europe in the 1920s and was one of the first books to show his strong interest in the Spanish bullfighting tradition[10†][12†].

Here are some of Hemingway’s main works along with the year of first publication[10†][8†]:

It’s worth noting that three of his novels were published posthumously[10†][8†][2†]:

Hemingway’s works are considered classics of American literature, and his economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction[10†][8†][2†].

Analysis and Evaluation

Ernest Hemingway’s writing style was distinctive and had a significant impact on the landscape of 20th-century fiction[13†][14†]. His prose was characterized by its brevity and directness, making it stand out among the work of his contemporaries[13†][14†]. Hemingway’s style was semi-revolutionary, with language that was short, direct, and to the point[13†][14†]. He did not adorn his prose with extra words or poetic-sounding language[13†][14†].

Hemingway set for himself the task of writing about a thousand words a day, or about three typed pages[13†][15†]. However, he did not consider his work done until he had revised that thousand words down to about three hundred[13†][15†]. His sentences were short, his words were simple, and his constructions were uncomplicated, making his prose electrifying[13†][15†].

His work has received significant critical attention, though not all of it laudatory[13†]. His tough, macho attitude toward life and his treatment of women have been the subjects of hostile reviews by feminist critics during the 1970’s and 1980’s[13†]. Despite this, Hemingway’s influence on American letters is undeniable. His spare style has become a model for authors, especially short-story writers[13†].

Hemingway’s stories and novels are uncompromising[13†][14†]. His passion for high adventure and his escapades as a womanizer made him as famous for his lifestyle as for his literary accomplishments[13†]. His work reflects his own experiences and observations, making it a fascinating study of a man who was very much a product of his time[13†][16†].

There is little question that Ernest Hemingway will be remembered as one of the outstanding prose stylists in American literary history[13†]. It was for his contributions in this area that he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, two years after the publication of "The Old Man and the Sea"[13†].

Personal Life

Ernest Hemingway’s personal life was as intriguing as his many books[17†]. He was married four times, each time meeting his next wife while still married to the previous[17†].

Hemingway’s first marriage was to Hadley Richardson, but the details of their relationship and subsequent separation are not well-documented in my current knowledge base[17†]. After his marriage to Richardson, Hemingway went on to marry three more times[17†].

In 1946, Hemingway married his fourth wife, Mary[17†][18†]. Unfortunately, the family suffered health problems and mishaps in the years following the war[17†][18†]. Hemingway and Mary had some serious accidents, as well as the deaths of literary friends like Ford Madox Ford, William Butler Yeats, Scott Fitzgerald, and James Joyce[17†][18†].

Before taking his own life with a self-inflicted gunshot, the renowned author had quite an adventurous married life[17†]. Despite the intense pleasure Hemingway took from outdoor life and his popularity in high school—where he distinguished himself as a scholar and athlete—he ran away from home twice[17†][19†].

Conclusion and Legacy

Ernest Hemingway was one of the most influential and celebrated writers of the 20th century[20†]. His novels and stories captured the essence of his time and place, as well as his own adventurous and turbulent life[20†]. He was also a Nobel laureate, a Pulitzer winner, a war correspondent, and a cultural icon[20†].

Hemingway’s minimalist prose and emphasis on authenticity have become hallmarks of modern storytelling[20†][21†]. His focus on character development has helped to shape the way we write and tell stories today[20†][21†]. His personality and constant pursuit of adventure loomed almost as large as his creative talent[20†][22†].

Hemingway left behind an impressive body of work and an iconic style that still influences writers today[20†][22†]. His legacy continues to inspire and influence modern writers, and his works are considered classics of American literature[20†][2†].

Key Information

References and Citations:

  1. Britannica - Ernest Hemingway: American writer [website] - link
  2. Wikipedia (English) - Ernest Hemingway [website] - link
  3. The Ernest Hemingway Collection - Ernest Hemingway Early Years [website] - link
  4. New World Encyclopedia - Ernest Hemingway [website] - link
  5. Britannica - What was Ernest Hemingway’s childhood like? [website] - link
  6. The Nobel Prize - Ernest Hemingway – Biographical [website] - link
  7. EnglishLiterature.Net - Ernest Hemingway [website] - link
  8. Wikipedia (English) - Ernest Hemingway bibliography [website] - link
  9. Britannica - Ernest Hemingway Facts [website] - link
  10. Peter Harrington - Collecting First Edition Ernest Hemingway Books [website] - link
  11. Order of Books - Order of Ernest Hemingway Books [website] - link
  12. Oxford Bibliographies - Ernest Hemingway [website] - link
  13. eNotes - Ernest Hemingway Analysis [website] - link
  14. Book Analysis - Understanding Ernest Hemingway's Incredible Writing Style [website] - link
  15. eNotes - Ernest Hemingway American Literature Analysis [website] - link
  16. The International Academic Forum - 403 Forbidden [website] - link
  17. Unknown Cite [website] - link
  18. Literary Devices - Ernest Hemingway [website] - link
  19. Encyclopedia of World Biography - Ernest Hemingway Biography [website] - link
  20. Trendy Digests - Ernest Hemingway: The Life and Legacy of a Literary Giant [website] - link
  21. A Book Geek - Ernest Hemingway's Influence on Modern Writing: Why His Work Still [website] - link
  22. Ernest Hemingway Biography - Legacy - Ernest Hemingway [website] - link
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